Control Approaches for Magnetic Levitation Systems and Recent Works on Its Controllers’ Optimization: A Review

Abdualrhman Abdalhadi, Herman Wahid


Magnetic levitation (Maglev) system is a stimulating nonlinear mechatronic system in which an electromagnetic force is required to suspend an object (metal sphere) in the air. The electromagnetic force is very sensitive to the noise, which can create acceleration forces on the metal sphere, causing the sphere to move into the unbalanced region. Maglev benefits the industry since 1842, in which the maglev system has reduced power consumption, increased power efficiency, and reduced maintenance cost. The typical applications of Maglev system are in wind turbine for power generation, Maglev trains and medical tools. This paper presents a comparative assessment of controllers for the maglev system and ways for optimally tuning the controllers’ parameters. Several types of controllers for maglev system are also reviewed throughout this paper.


Magnetic levitation; Modelling; Optimization; Nonlinear controller; PID controller.

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